Why metaphors are creative rocket fuel

Why metaphors are creative rocket fuel

Metaphors make our world beautiful, powerful examples of creative thinking in action because they describe things in different ways. All cultures are full of them and this is why they resonate with us – because of the translation of mundane experiences into colourful imagery.

Fire raged in his belly as he heard the news of her demise. We know that there is no ‘fire in his belly’ but the imagery provides us with another way of saying that he was angry and creates a poetic expression. This divergent process has the advantage of abstraction which means there are infinite possibilities of how to describe something, in this case, ‘anger’ – he exploded, he had daggers in his eyes, he was a ball of focused tension, etc. By teaching students how to understand and use metaphors we promote creative behaviour.

I am a big fan of Joseph Campbell and his work, which has infiltrated much of western popular culture. His book ‘The Hero with a Thousand Faces’ is now the ‘go-to’ for Hollywood script writing and famously paved George Lucas vision for the original Stars Wars plot. At a deeper level though, Campbell’s work provides us with the understanding that all storytelling, across all cultures, is metaphorical for our own journey in life. The stories that have survived and that resonate with us are lessons for us, how we all face hurdles and what needs to be done to overcome and benefit from these trials. Metaphors for life. Fairy tales and fables can demonstrate easily what a metaphor is. For example, the Tortoise and the Hare provides us with two metaphors of living life. In the case of the Hare – fast, impetuous, irrational, and the Tortoise – careful, thoughtful and calculating. These two figures have transcended our culture even with marketers using the ‘Energizer Bunny’ – full of energy that keeps going and going and going, and ‘Turtle wax’ – dependable and strong.

Making students aware of what and how metaphors are gives them a helpful understanding of their world and their lives. It opens up popular culture and starts to decode what they are subjected to through literature, music and film. Once an understanding is in place then students should experiment with making their own – and metaphors can be applied to literally everything.

In her book, ‘IngeniusTina Seelig states that creating metaphors is a powerful tool to evoke creative thinking. They act as an imaginative way of expressing something in a variety of other ways, which is creative process. And making these iterations can lead to other ideas, a springboard to deepen and widen the net of possibilities. It is an active exercise, requiring application of thought.

The power of observation can help get this process kickstarted. By taking a simple theme, say ‘happiness’ for example and then looking around your immediate vicinity you can gather stimuli that could be applied to the idea – as I look around the room I am working in… Her happiness was:

  • music that lifted her soul (I saw a pair of speakers),
  • the colourful array of perfectly composed lines (I saw pens and pencils) or
  • the satisfying memory of a simpler time (I saw a photo).

They may not be the most poetic examples but they came through observation and applying imagination to what surrounds me. This exercise can be easily applied to any subject area.

Partly why I love dance so much is because it is an abstract representation of something, a theme, memory, subject, object or whatever you would like. There is no right and wrong translations. Dancing is metaphorical. Students can be encouraged to represent a topic through movement, this translation of an idea takes it through a semiotic change which helps deepen understanding. It requires you to think of it in a different way. Or inversely it can be used to help create dance (and indeed art). Starting with an idea – ‘capitalism is greed out of control’ and then find metaphors for the idea (a bulldozer knocking over trees) which can be then used to create dance (a dancer pushing bodies to the ground), and of course also in music, theatre and visual art.

Musical lyrics are full of metaphors and can be used as great examples, such as: You ain’t nothing but a hound dog (you won’t leave me alone – made famous by Elvis but not his originally), Walking on sunshine (happiness – Katrina and the Waves), Tears of a clown (sadness – Smokey Robinson). But more than that music like dance is metaphorical. Creating music to represent a topic or a theme is an abstract metaphor and the same semiotic process applies as with dance.

What I like about metaphors is that they ensure understanding. You cannot make an effective metaphor for an idea if you do not understand the idea itself and the understanding is indeed deepened through thinking about it in a variety of ways.

 

If you would like to read more about creativity and education check out my blog.

Header image by Nela.

 

5 ways to help students understand interpretation

5 ways to help students understand interpretation

Everyone in a complex system has a slightly different interpretation. The more interpretations we gather, the easier it becomes to gain a sense of the whole. – Margaret J. Wheatley

Educational institutions are definitely complex systems along with young people arriving each day full with their own experiential backpacks, they bring a wide variety of influences that determine their outlook; culture, parental, peer, religious, and so on. These personal perspectives are infinitely valuable to provide a ‘whole’ system. Each interpretation of events in the complex system has worth. We want youth to consider and create their own judgements but through an informed course of action. How do we install a methodology for students to be thoughtful and critical, yet remain subjective?

Installing the difference between us is the starting point. Recently while travelling through Albania we encountered locals shaking their heads as a sign for “yes” – this was initially confusing because how I read the signal has the opposite meaning (and for a “no” the Albanians give a slight nod). My interpretation is based on my cultural upbringing, which differs to others. It was a case of interpretation.

In the Arts we explore interpretation through an analytic approach and this interpretation is twofold. On one hand we have how we view art and the other, how we create art. Installing an understanding of how we observe and what constructs our views also provides the security and confidence when it comes to creating.

Interpretation is a subjective practice. In educational environments it can be difficult for students to hold on to their own perceptions as they are heavily influenced by peers (like or dislike) and educators (often, right or wrong). For example, I have my personal perspective of an artistic aesthetic which appeals to me. I try not stamp it on my students yet it is important they are exposed to what I appreciate, although they need to be free to decide whether they like it or not, and importantly, say why.

Figuring out what one likes and dislikes in the Arts comes with many advantages. Students have the opportunity to develop their own aesthetic preferences – their taste for art. We all know that our own tastes differ, teaching this to students is often difficult when they are so impressionable to peer pressure. A student must realise that their backpack, that they come to school with is not only fill of their lunch, device, books and pencil case but a history of who they are. All of the input that they have absorbed, seen, been told or actively searched out makes up their opinion, their worldly perspective. It may differ to the student next to them for so many reasons, and that is ok. Some simple ways to help students with establishing their personal perspectives can be easily installed through these exercises:

  • Listing classes at school from most to least liked with descriptions of why they enjoy (and don’t enjoy) those subjects.

 

  • List hobbies and extra-curricular activities – these are usually based on what they want to do with their time.

 

  • Favourite music, movies, food and places, and then inversely things they don’t like.

 

  • Short stories about their family life, rituals, daily routines and how the family has fun together.

 

  • Stories and songs that are specific to their culture and what the meaning of those stories/songs are.

These exercises do not need to be pen and paper activities either. For example: School subjects could be stations around the classroom, split the class in half, half go to their most favourite subject and the other to their least. In these groupings at each station they discuss why. Then the next subject, i.e. the second most and second least, discuss… and so on.

Alternatively, have little skits that combine eating a favourite food at their favourite place to their favourite song – make it a journey, where they encounter things they dislike along the way to get there. Perform them to the class and open it up to peer feedback.

By using some of these exercises and discussing them together an atmosphere of acknowledgement and acceptance can be formed about who we are, and why we are all different.

This sets a foundation for looking and listening to art and having an opinion. Most importantly is that students begin to be able to justify their choices – talking about how the artist used the elements of art to create the work. It requires observation plus the higher order thinking skills of analysis and evaluation; by using knowledge of the Art form to deconstruct and formulate judgements. These are transferable skills. Therefore, an opinion can be justified. For example, I like this painting because of the use of negative space, or I dislike it because of the use of negative space. Neither is wrong, both are right.

This then lays the foundation for the students’ own creation of art. Once they can analyse why they like or dislike they will be encouraged to follow their own path while interpreting a topic. It is essential there is an understanding that interpretation is what makes art. Art is nothing without interpretation. A personal point of view is what makes art imaginative. The same landscape can be painted countless times but it will always be done differently by different people, making it original.

An activity to reinforce this (and can be used as assessment) is to let students peer assess each other’s work by recreating it. Letting them try to better the work by evaluating where they interpreted the weak areas and how it could be improved. Providing an explanation for how and why they decided to change it provides the teacher with an insight to the student’s understanding of the work.

Understanding interpretation provides students with a confirmation about who they are and where they come from, their personal taste and the security that their preferences are valid. This in turn allows them the freedom to create knowing that their way of doing things is as authentic as the person next to them.

More about creativity and education on my blog.

Header image by Nela.

Constraints, how they transform the process of creative thinking

Constraints, how they transform the process of creative thinking

How many ways can you reorganise these three words?  –  ‘and, so, on’

 

Take some time with the task before scrolling down.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

…really take time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

…a bit longer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ok.

 

 

 

The logical answer is six. 

and, so, on | and, on, so | so, on, and | so, and, on | on, so, and | on, and, so.

But there are no rules established beyond ‘reorganise these words’, so…

Noon, sod, a | dan, soon | sad, noon | son, nod, a | don, son, a | nods, no, a | do, an, son | sad, on, no | no, sand, o!

The great thing here is that the problem never asked for logic. This is partly a perception problem that is well covered in a blog post by Michael Michalko. But this post is looking how we can elicit creativity out of constraints. By providing boundaries and limitations we can force ourselves to see more possibilities where we once thought there were few.

Then, who said they had to be sensible words? What about: nood, san | nono, asd | nand, oos | anodons | a, n, s, d, o, n, o.

Or what about graphically reorganised?

anD, sO, on

 

Ok, I know all the typographers out there will be cringing at that effort BUT once we start to explore what we perceive are boundaries they suddenly start to shift and morph into a new set of possibilities. We find depth in what we thought was a closed problem, using the elements in unusual and surprising ways.

Limiting choice is good for creative thinking.

This tends to go against what we would expect but there are countless examples of people being innovative with just a little. Prison breaks come to mind as good examples but by far the best recent one (and closest to my heart) is Team New Zealand (TNZ) thrashing Oracle USA to win the America’s Cup. TNZ was in an embarrassing predicament of losing a seven match advantage in 2013 at the last America’s Cup regatta and sponsors started leaving. Hence, their problem this time was they had a very limited budget compared to other teams that were being financed by some of the richest men in the world (Larry Ellison – Oracle). TNZ had to rethink how a boat could be designed and sailed. Traditionally the boats are operated by arm grinding mechanisms. The kiwi syndicate with limited funds looked at the system differently and turned them into pedal grinders, sat as cyclists and freed their arms to operate other aspects of the boat.

We thrive on a challenge and adversity.

On a recent trip to Warsaw, Poland I discovered the story of how rebuilding the inner city castle was accomplished after being decimated by the Nazis during World War II. The communist regime refused to help with planning, financing or reconstruction so the people of Warsaw contributed what little they had, spare coins when they had them, to the project. Without permission the locals donated their own time and spent ten years building, and decorating the structure. The constraints of the situation required another approach, something unorthodox which solved the problem in a unique (and amazing) way.

So what implications does this have for learning and teaching? Why would we want to impose constraints on students? It seems to be counter-intuitive to creative practice but the advantages of doing so are quickly apparent.

Students in my Dance class are given some electrical tape and asked to map out a shape on the floor no bigger than approximately one metre squared. Then in pairs they have to stay in that space and generate movement. The exploration starts with confusion and frustration, often expressing that they are limited by space and can do very little. But when they persist and just start trying to find one different movement after another they build a repertoire realising, that actually, a lot can be achieved – in fact they are only limited by their imagination. Then questions start being asked; Can I have just one body part in it and it still counts? Can I be outside but connected with someone else who is within the boundaries?

Awesome.

The boundaries start to shift and are looked at in various ways to find new possibilities and opportunities to develop. With perseverance, constraints change perspective.

With my senior theatre class we investigated the different roles that are in theatre (creator, director, designer and performer) only using a water bottle as a stimulus. The students found what they thought was a fairly bland object could be moved in different ways, be an inspiration for how they could move, improvise multiple scenes around it as a starting point, researched how it was made and who it was made for, make other objects from it, be the focus of the work or be a redundant prop and otherwise ignored. It was not even particularly difficult to generate these ideas. Once the students stayed with the object as their source, the possibilities became apparent and it could be used to experiment with in any of the given roles whether it be creating, directing, designing or performing.

 

How could constraints be used in other subject areas to facilitate creative thinking?

 

In Language Arts, the idea this blog post started with could be used in a poetry unit. Give students a limited amount of words/sentences and make them persevere with different outcomes. Even the presentation of poems through different graphical representations (like the “and, so, on” example above) opens up a whole new world.

In Mathematics get students to experiment with how many ways they can represent a whole number line or can find examples of it. It could be danced, made into a game, be stations on a metro-line, thermometer, etc.

In Social Studies create fictitious countries with limited natural resources and set students the task of how they are going to create income. What ways can they come up with to make a nation rich with only a little?

Constraints lay a framework for problem solving, thinking inside the box (which I have also touched on in this post). Humanity has a knack of being innovative without an endless supply of resources. It is a quality we should be teaching our youth and indeed, can be taught.

And if you want a 5 minute summary of creative constraints then this TED lesson might be of interest.

 

All Images by Nela

Risk and creativity, an odd combination?

Risk and creativity, an odd combination?

This is an experiment in creative thinking. I’m going out on a limb and taking a risk. This blog post will demonstrate how linking unrelated ideas can become a cohesive piece of reading material. Here we go.

School finished for the day, farewelled my students, did some press-ups, packed my gear, picked up student belongings and headed to my office, which led me across the school driveway. A Porsche with the top down drove in front of me, and the driver, a middle aged woman, was on her phone (in hand). ERRRRRRRR. I ran up to her expensive piece of machinery and signalled to stop.

“You know talking on your phone while driving is dangerous and illegal?”

“I know.”

?

“So why are you doing it?”

“It’s only a driveway”

“But there are lots of young kids around.”

She shrugs, grunts and drives on.

Flabbergasted.

How can this be that in spite of knowing the dangers to others that an individual can blatantly put those around them at risk? In a school.

Our own mortality may be something that we are ignorant about, but what about that of young kids? Is this the kind of example we want to set for them and the risk we want them to be exposed to? and believe is harmless?

Although, risk can be a great thing. It lets us experiment with the unknown and push our own boundaries. Without it we, humanity, would make very slow progress. But please let it be informed intelligent risk. Risk that will make us grow and develop, not cut short and destroy. We have a responsibility as educators to teach risk in a safe environment manifesting individual, social, technological and artistic development for the better.

The creative process is an excellent tool to help students realise what risk is all about. It provides a framework where unlikely ideas are welcome. For a student to suggest an improbable or impossible solution, is often a huge risk. Many won’t put forward absurd solutions because they don’t want to be ridiculed or simply, education encourages rational, reasonable answers.

Tina Seelig in her book ‘Ingenius’ covers various tools that facilitate creativity, one of them is combining odd things. She highlights the Japanese artform of ‘Chindōgu’ which is the Japanese “art of inventing ingenious everyday gadgets that seem like an ideal solution to a particular problem, but are in fact useless.” These pictures will give you a brief but compelling summary.

Butter stick

Baby mop

Noodle cooler

 

Absolutely absurd? Yes.

Practical? No.

The baby mop is definitely a favourite but only because I giggle imagining my own kids in that suit.

But ideas like these are hard for students to grasp for the above mentioned reasons, although they are imaginative ideas that spur creative thinking in divergent directions – a desirable trait. Think of this blog post as an example, where did it start? With an anecdotal story about a Porsche, phone and arrogant woman, and now at a besotted father laughing at his kids as cheap labour mopping the family floors.

And why not? Are there any definite rules to writing blogs? Sure there are methods we know that do work but does that mean everything else doesn’t? How many times do we think there are set structures in life only to see them rewritten, and be successful? There are countless examples of ‘experts’ telling individuals that they are off the mark and their ideas have no value, only to be proved wrong. The Xerox machine, the personal computer (Apple), Aspirin and the telephone are all examples of products that were seen as useless and had no potential market. So why not putting ridiculous ideas together to come up with something new?

The ‘Bowie method’ is a good example of this. David Bowie would write out the lyrics for a new song he was working on, cut them up and randomly rearrange them. From the new constellation of lyrics, he would rework and tweak them into a form that resonated. Who would think, all those songs that people have meaningful relationships with, were once cut up on pieces of paper lying on Bowie’s floor waiting to be randomly pasted together?

So how can we, within our contexts, allow and encourage absurdity to be acceptable and use it to develop thinking? Over the next year I’m on a mission to try and explain math concepts through dance, I know I’m not the first but it will be a first time for me. Maybe not totally absurd but hopefully something unexpected, odd and engaging.

In my theatre and dance classes I sometimes encourage students to think of an unfeasible place where they would like to ideally perform their creations – for example on the moon or underwater. Obviously it is not possible to do that, but what would it feel like to perform in those places? Can you show me what it would look like? Then suddenly they have a new quality of moving, and essentially a new dance.

How often do we make up new words? We only really use what we know but when we read Roald Dahl books or the Harry Potter collection we never doubt the use of new words to describe places, creatures, objects or events. Students could aim to invent a number of new words in a creative writing exercise to push their thinking.

Unfeasible geopolitical situations, like I mean absolutely absurd, Aliens invade and literally split Canada down the middle and then the East coast is transported and fused to the west coast of Portugal, extending Europe into the Atlantic. How do you deal with the new geographical situation and political implications?

Different rules that structure our universe, the space and time continuum  is not how we know it but governed by something completely different, eg Newton’s laws of motion behaved differently. Then conduct theoretical experiments within the new parameters.

All of these ideas still require students to use skills that they have previously learnt or the knowledge and skills learnt during these exercises are applicable to other real life situations.

So, you get the point. We can, and should, push student thinking into not just what we do know and what is possible (or right) – but beyond to the outrageous edges of Terry Pratchett’s “Discworld” universe (if you have never read these books take the time!). We need the irrational, ludicrous thinking to make the impossible possible. It is not a redundant exercise, we have to remember as educators that in these types of absurd scenarios students will still be applying subject specific skills to a creative thinking exercise.

What the research is telling us about the future of the workforce is that employers want people who see opportunities or problems beyond what is in front of them. Being able to consider something that seems impossible or absurd is definitely a step in the right direction. We have to encourage students to take these risks, yet even better – use risk to their advantage.

Whether or not this is a well written blog post is beside the point, it was for me a journey and an experiment from which I have learnt. By trying something new a risk was taken which made me think divergently by attempting to link together different ideas to make a point.

 

All Images by Nela

Ready to teach a multidisciplinary arts project?

Ready to teach a multidisciplinary arts project?

We had long been talking in our department about interdisciplinary with other subject areas but getting it off the ground was difficult. This is when we looked at the situation from another perspective and thought why don’t we do it internally; multidisciplinary projects within the Performing Arts?

In Grade 6 and 7 all students have to take Drama, Dance, Music and Theatre Design. We took the decision to combine two disciplines where they have to create a single product over the course of a semester. So, Grade 6 attend Dance and Music where they have to compose a dance and a piece of music to a certain theme (first semester ‘personality traits’ and the other in second semester ‘opposites’). In Drama and Theatre Design they devise small theatrical pieces and make costume elements, and then in the second semester create puppets for a self-devised piece.

Grade 7 we switch it up with the aim of challenging student perceptions and thinking. We combine, Dance with Drama and then Music with Theatre Design. These couplings that are not so ‘natural’ produce some excellent work and I have been surprised by the willingness, and openness the students have approached the tasks. The end of unit performances this past semester were particularly strong which surprised, not only us, but the students. Putting ‘unexpected’ elements together is an identified tool to help enhance creative thinking (and an upcoming blog post).

We leave the actual creating of the final work till quite late and spent the majority of time through the unit skill building. Students spent one lesson a week in each of the two disciplines they are doing for the semester. In my context, through dance, a focus on how to abstract movement from words and gestures, working with choreographic tools. In the Music class they anaylsis pieces through listening tasks, learn some basic theory and work on composition skills. These are independent lessons, music and dance, but are ‘sold’ to the students as one course, for example we look at how to compose music and choreograph  dance over a two week period using the same stimulus “rollercoaster”. All the time we push students beyond ‘the first thing’ they think of while doing any type of creating. Trying to get them into a habit of producing multiple alternatives, a great little tool to demonstrate this is the 10x2 artful thinking activity.

Our goal is that when we arrive at the final product the students should be in a semi-autonomous state, where they only need guiding questions and prompting. We provide boundaries – what needs to be included – and continually guide them with feedback.

There are loads of positives doing these multidisciplinary project based units and we make sure that there is an authentic audience at the conclusion by inviting parents. Beyond that:

  • It is a collaborative process, students work in groups of three to six and have to deal with compromises – finding strategies to work effectively together.
  • Changes perceptions about how disciplines can be combined to create. Students often enter with a “but how will we do this? What will it look like?” attitude. Even Music and Dance which are a ‘natural pairing’ students are encouraged to develop dance content without having finished composing music. This order (or simultaneous creating) is difficult for students because it breaks with expectations.
  • Tracking student progress. The constant communication with colleagues allows consistency with students across the different disciplines.
  • Reduced planning time, as we do the same lesson twice a week, the second time round with the experience of the first is often an improved version.
  • Reduced grading time. The students are receiving an overall grade for Performing Arts, some activities that are not subject specific like writing artistic intentions, reflections, exploring the stimulus are divided between the teachers and moderated. It reduces our grading load for these classes by half.
  • Students that are learning English benefit from communication and explanation from peers.
  • Makes the creative process explicit. Throughout the skill building phase we work with constraints, metaphors and producing LOTS of alternatives/solutions.
  • During the final product stage, it is a genuine problem that has to be looked at in detail and requires an analytical and playful approach.
  • Having showings during the process raises the quality, students are encouraged to work harder when they see what other groups are capable of producing.
  • Differentiation. Students choose their own  groups, which manifests in pushing each other to achieve higher (in almost all combinations, although you always get one group…)

The multidisciplinary approach has been a very successful model within our context and one that we really enjoying teaching. I am positive it could easily work in other subject areas as well. Please feel free to ask if you have any questions on how we structure it.

 

Feature image by Nela

Mindfulness and focus in five minutes

Mindfulness and focus in five minutes

“I’m pretty much done with mindfulness. I’m just going to start paying attention.” – Gina Barre (comedian)

This quote made me smile, it reinforces my cynicism of trends, although this post won’t go into that topic, but it will provide a quick strategy to focus a classroom and establish authentic attention. I stumbled upon this purely by accident but now use it regularly. It works for all ages and you can do it for yourself.

Balance on one leg.

That’s it. But framing is important. Have students stand, feet together all facing the same direction with a bit of space around them. Hands relaxed by their sides. Wait for quiet. Instruct students to find a point on the wall in front of them at eye height to focus on. Slowly lift/slide left foot on top of right so it is just resting on top of it. After a minute or so suggest if they feel comfortable they can lift their foot to their knee. Remind them to keep the focus on the point in front of them that ‘that focus helps them balance’ (and it does). After a minute slowly lower leg to stand on two feet. Repeat on the other foot. Done.

Remind those doing the activity if they start to wobble or get frustrated, to just quietly reset and start again. The calm approach is vital.

This is not necessarily something I use when kids are off task (but do as well). In my context with small groups creating dance or devising theatre in a large space, it gets loud. Even though students are working towards a goal it is sometimes good to pause, digest, reset and go again.

It works so well because it is a challenge. I am always surprised at how calm and focused the class is after this activity. I usually use it halfway through a lesson but it works well both as a starter and as part of a plenary as well. You can unpack it if you like, observations etc, and talk about the effects of concentration in helping you achieve a goal…

Feature image by Nela